Understanding fertility in men
The sperm is produced in the testes by specialized cells called sertoli cells under the influence of FSH and LH hormones. FSH stimulates the production of sperm from the testis, and LH stimulates the production of hormone testosterone, which is essential for the creation of male characteristics and the production of sperm. Sperm needs approximately 90 days to be produced and mature. Sperm is transported to the epididymis where it is stored. When ejaculation occurs sperm is mixed with fluid from the seminal vesicle as well as with a dense substance from the prostate.
The process of spermatogenesis begins by dividing them into many immature spermatocytes called spermatogonia and advancing to successive stages of maturation. The mature cells are called sperm cells. The sperm during ejaculation is dense and fluidized within 30 minutes so that it is allowed to move easily into the woman’s reproductive system to reach the ovum and fertilize it.
The sperm consists of the head and the tail. To successfully fertilize an egg it must be able to move with the help of its tail through the cervical mucus, then travel through the uterus and reach the oviduct to meet the egg. It will also have to penetrate the outermost shell membrane of the egg to release the genetic material in its head into it.