Miscarriages due to problems of the embryo
70% of spontaneous abortions are due to accidental chromosomal or gene abnormalities of the embryo. This is damage to fetal DNA that may occur accidentally or due to lesions in the egg or semen DNA. The mechanism of natural selection in humans promptly detects this damage and discontinues pregnancies in order not to give birth to a child that is incompatible with human nature.
In order to diagnose the pathological DNA it is necessary to carry out miscarriage tissue test during the curettage – “karyotype”test. The karyotype will help us understand whether the cause is genetic and whether it is likely to be due to damage to the DAN of the egg or sperm DNA. Only 5% of the miscarriages where the embryo has pathological DNA will be due to some chromosomal or genital damage to the semen or egg of the parents. In such cases, we will orientate the couple to seek specialized counseling from a genetician.
If the cause of the miscarriage is not genetic, we will need to further examine the couple, i.e. to perform hormonal and immunological screening on the woman, examined her uterus as well as complete check of the sperm of the male.
The most important and common cause contributing to miscarriages where the embryo has pathological DNA is the age of the woman. The lower the ovum reserve in the ovaries (low AMH – high FSH) [link], the higher the risk of miscarriage. Typically, the likelihood of a 25-year-old female having a miscarriage is 5%, while at 40 it is 35%!
The quality of sperm contributes equally to the likelihood of a miscarriage. The quality of the sperm is initially checked by examining the semen analysis, especially with the DFI (DNA Fragmentation Control)